The intoxication subacute of ammoniacal nitrogen in the nutrition of the dairy cow of high production
The nitrogen metabolism in dairy cows:
(by M. Wattiaux – Babcock Institute for International Dairy Research and Development University of Wisconsin – 2014)
The nitrogen metabolism in dairy cows:
The ruminal pH change caused by a sudden and / or sharp increase in rumen soluble nitrogen (protein imbalance), resulting in:
- one excessive ingestion of highly soluble fresh protein fodder (ex: excessive doses of green pasture rich in soluble nitrogen such as alfalfa and / or clover, etc …)
- the use of high doses of silage with a high content of NH3 in free form in the ration, etc … causes both a soluble nitrogen poisoning in the rumen which can also be followed by an acute alkalosis (but only on some subjects) and more as one increase in ammoniacal nitrogen at a ruminal habitat followed by one metabolic level of NH3 (subacute form) which then, in practice, is also the most damaging for economic purposes as it covers the whole herd
Effects on animal health and production:
This situation at rumen level creates the ideal conditions for the development of the Allisonella histaminiformans, a ubiquitous microorganism of the rumen producing histamine that results in:
- the immediate inflammation of the rumen papillaes (due to increased circulating cytokines) and consequent reduction in the assimilation of AGVs (Volatile Fatty Acids) followed by the activation of diseases affecting:
- udder (increase in the infimmatory state in the breast and consequently more CSS and mastitis)
- feet (formation of thrombus at amatic level >> interdigital phlegmon >> laminitis)
- ovaries (ovarian cysts)
- in some animals the acute form (acute alkalosis) may also occur with diseases affecting:
- liver (hepatic steatosis)
- of the kidneys (nephritis)
and in severe forms
- CNS (neuroplegic symptoms with ataxia, impaired gait etc … and in some cases coma and death of subject Struck)
Actions to be taken on the ration for the subacute forms to improve the health, reproduction and production of cows:
- Elimination and / or reduction of the toxic nitrogen food source ( green grass, grass silage, urea, etc …) and
add the following mix to the ration
- mix of sodium propionate 100 g / head / day + 20 g. / head/ days of Micronil ® (ProbioactiFAP®) + ANTIGRIP FEED (NUTRIVIT-COFATHIM phytotherapic with an anti-inflammatory action ) 50g./head/days This mix must be administered until the end of the use of the “toxic” ( ex: grass silage ) feed source in the diet and continue for at least another 10 days and continue for at least another 10 days.
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